Simple sentences - Understanding the need for a sentence to make complete sense.
Capital letters - Using a capital letter at the beginning of a sentence, for a proper name and for a title.
Question marks and exclamation marks - Understanding that question marks and exclamation marks are special cases of full stops and where to use them.
Nouns - Understanding that a noun is a naming word. It is the name of a person, animal, place or thing.
Verbs - Understanding that a verb is a being word. It tells us what a person, animal or thing does.
Simple sentence construction - subject – verb – object - Recognising and building sentences.
Subject-verb agreement - The verb ‘to be’. Understanding the concepts of past and present, singular and plural.
Conjunctions - Linking sentences with and or but.
Improving sentences using a range of conjunctions - Understanding when to join sentences and when not to.
Verb tenses, past and present - Understanding the need for consistent use of verb tenses.
Direct and indirect speech - Introducing speech marks.
The use of the comma - to separate a list.
The language of time - Using the vocabulary of time to establish chronology in a story or recount.
Statements and questions - Changing from one to the other. Understanding and using questions.
Beginners Level: Composition & Comprehension
Talking about writing - Why do we write? – purpose and audience.
Using a dictionary and thesaurus - Understanding alphabetical order and how and why we use dictionaries and thesauruses.
Using a glossary and index - Understanding what the terms mean and how each is used.
Writing instructions - Starting with a verb or a time connective and using the present tense to write clear and precise instructions.
Writing letters - Understanding how to set out and write a personal letter and a postcard. Using capital letters and new lines to set out an address.
A chronological recount - How to recall, order and write an accurate account of a real event. Using time connectives to link events.
An information book - Understanding title, contents, chapters, headings and subheadings. Using contents, chapters and index to find information. Constructing simple information sheet.
Re-telling a story - Adapting the techniques used to write a chronological report to retell a well-known story.
Story structure - Understanding the basic structure of beginning, middle and ending. Using a spider diagram to plan a simple story based on questions. Writing a short story.
Setting the scene - Using descriptive language to tell the reader more about how a place looks, sounds and feels.
Character profiles - Using descriptive language to tell the reader more about the people in a story.
Poetry - Shape poems, acrostic poems. A first look at rhythm and rhyme.
Comprehension - Reading for meaning. Finding information and answering questions.
A book review - Stating a reasoned opinion and recommendation.
Making notes - Identifying the important information. Using words and phrases rather than complete sentences. Key facts.
Intermediate Level: Grammar
A review of basic punctuation and grammar - Capital letters, noun and verbs.
Verbs - Looking at the variety of verbs. Finding more interesting ways of saying the same thing.
Adjectives - Understanding that an adjective describes a noun. Looking at the use of adjectives in sentences.
Singular and plural - Looking at how words change when they change from singular to plural and the effect it has on a sentence.
Using commas - in lists and around groups of words which add information to a sentence but can be left out.
Pronouns - Understanding that pronouns are used in place of nouns. Possessive pronouns indicate belonging.
Direct speech – the actual words spoken. Understanding that a new speaker needs to be on a new line. Recognising the difference between direct and indirect speech.
Conjunctions - Looking at a wider range of conjunctions.
Adverbs - Understanding that an adverb describes a verb. Using adverbs to improve sentences.
Comparative and superlative adjectives - Understanding how to use comparative and superlative adjectives.
The apostrophe – contraction - Using an apostrophe to indicate missing letters where two words have been made into one.
The apostrophe – possession - Using an apostrophe to show possession or belonging. Knowing when to add apostrophe ‘s’ and when to add apostrophe invisible ‘s’.
Punctuation - Semi-colon, colon, hyphen, dashes and brackets.
Intermediate Level: Composition & Comprehension
Planning - Using spider diagrams, flow charts and storyboards to plan non-fiction.
Paragraphs - Understanding how, why and when to use paragraphs.
Themes and characters - Investigating different themes which are often used in fiction writing and how to recognise them.
Investigating central characters - Developing the personality of a character.
Extended writing - Understanding the ways of extending writing by adding detail or description.
Play scripts - Setting out a play script. Using direct speech. Adding stage directions.
Poetry - Understanding rhythm and rhyme. Writing simple rhyming poems.
Comprehension - Reading for meaning. Finding information and answering questions which require meaning to be understood and interpreted. Devising questions about a piece of writing.
Taking and making notes - Taking notes during an interview and writing a report. Expanding on a set of notes. Making notes to answer a specific question.
Information text - Revision of index and glossary. Investigating ways of giving information e.g. lists, diagrams, text. Planning using flow diagrams and charts. Five interesting facts.
Newspaper report - Headlines. Improving text to catch the reader’s attention. Writing a simple newspaper report.
Adverts - The hidden persuaders. Building a wider vocabulary of adjectives. Designing a simple advert. Using a storyboard to plan a TV advert.
Posters and invitations - Collecting all the necessary information. Thinking about the relative importance of each piece of information. Planning and design.
Opinion - Understanding how opinions are formed. Simple surveys. Doing research. Giving reasons for a point of view.
Product review - Designing and completing tables. Identifying the best buy with reasons.
Rules - Writing clear and specific rules.
Advanced Level: Grammar
Review of parts of speech - Nouns, abstract nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs and conjunctions.
Verbs - The infinitive, compound verbs. Using shall/will and can/may correctly. Irregular verbs. Present, simple past, past participle. First, second and third person.
Prepositions - Understanding the part that prepositions play in linking words and phrases in sentences.
Review of punctuation - Correct usage of commas, speech marks, dashes, brackets, hyphens, colons and semi-colons.
Phrases and clauses - Understanding their structure, using and identifying phrases and clauses.
Standard English - Understanding the importance of using correct Standard English when writing. Recognising slang and dialect and knowing when they are acceptable.
Similes and Metaphors - Improving your writing by using strong descriptive language. Homonyms, antonyms and synonyms.
Onomatopoeia, alliteration and personification.
Common errors - Two, too or to? There, their or they’re? Your or you’re?
Relative pronouns - Understanding the use of relative pronouns as conjunctions.
Reviewing the use of the apostrophe for contraction and possession - Introducing the interjection.
Prefixes and suffixes - Using a prefix or a suffix to make a new word.
Use of language.
Advanced Level: Composition & Comprehension
Plan, Draft and Redraft - Review of audience and purpose. Review of planning strategies. Using re-drafting to improve and extend writing.
Proof-read and Presentation - Checking spelling, punctuation and grammar. General presentation – handwriting and layout.
Narrative - First and third person narrative. Using planning strategies. Characters and settings. Opening and closing paragraphs.
Dialogue - Understanding how and where to use direct speech in narrative. Informal language.
Descriptive Writing - Using imaginative vocabulary to describe people and places. Exploring different uses of descriptive writing.
Poetry - Poetry using personification, simile, metaphor and alliteration.
Explanation - Personal and impersonal writing. Connectives for explanation. Writing up a scientific experiment.
Research and Report - Understanding the importance of research and how and where to find information. The structure of a report based on research. Ways of presenting information including pictures, maps, graphs, tables diagrams and timetables.
Instructions - Understanding the imperative.
Review - Understanding the use of an impersonal and objective style.
Autobiography - The difference between biography and autobiography. Planning and writing a short autobiographical piece. Constructing a CV.
Persuasion - Planning a piece of persuasive writing. Using emotive language, including real evidence rather than opinion and quoting other people.
Discursive Writing - Using the third person and the present tense. Understanding active and passive voice. Presenting both sides of the argument with evidence.
Formal Letter - Setting out a formal letter. Using formal language and Standard English
Comprehension - Reading for meaning. Identify clues in the text where an answer is only inferred. Use the clues to deduce the answer. Understand the need to interpret, explain or analyse information. Use text as the basis for forming an opinion.